250 years ago Lieutenant James Cook was two and a half weeks into his first voyage on board the HMS Endeavour. He was bound for the Pacific Ocean where he was to record the transit of Venus across the Sun in order to devise a method of determining longitude.
On September 12th he anchored at Madeira, an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean. Accompanying Cook was the botanist Joseph Banks who wrote in his journal “This morn Porto Santo and Madeira were in full view, they were seen at daybreak, indeed we had a little overshot them; as the wind was rather scanty we had however no doubt of fetching in at night. Accordingly at ten tonight came to an anchor in Fonchiale bay”